Theory of Multiple Intelligences postulated by Howard Gardner
Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences by Howard Gardner
And as all have not faith, seek ye diligently and teach one another words of wisdom; yea, seek ye out of the best books words of wisdom; seek learning, even by study and also by faith. D&C 88:118
And I give unto you a commandment that you shall teach one another the doctrine of the kingdom. Teach ye diligently and my grace shall attend you, that you may be instructed more perfectly in theory, in principle, in doctrine, in the law of the gospel, in all things that pertain unto the kingdom of God, that are expedient for you to understand; Of things both in heaven and in the earth, and under the earth; things which have been, things which are, things which must shortly come to pass; things which are at home, things which are abroad; the wars and the perplexities of the nations, and the judgments which are on the land; and a knowledge also of countries and of kingdoms— That ye may be prepared in all things D&C 88:77-80
Seek not for riches but for wisdom, and behold, the mysteries of God shall be unfolded unto you, and then shall you be made rich. Behold, he that hath eternal life is rich. D&C 6:7
…study and learn, and become acquainted with all good books, and with languages, tongues, and people. And this shall be your business and mission in all your lives D&C 90:15-16
It is impossible for a man to be saved in ignorance. D&C 131:6
Verily I say unto you my friends, I speak unto you with my avoice, even the voice of my Spirit, that I may show unto you my will concerning your brethren in the land of bZion, many of whom are truly humble and are seeking diligently to learn wisdom and to find truth.
Whatever principle of intelligence we attain unto in this life, it will rise with us in the resurrection. And if a person gains more knowledge and intelligence in this life through his diligence and obedience than another, he will have so much the advantage in the world to come. D&C 130:18-19
The glory of God is intelligence, or, in other words, light and truth. D&C 93:36
Howard Earl Gardner (born July 11, 1943) is an American developmental psychologist and the John H. and Elisabeth A. Hobbs Professor of Cognition and Education at the Harvard Graduate School of Education at Harvard University. He is currently the senior director of Harvard Project Zero, and since 1995, he has been the co-director of the Good Project. He is best known for his theory of multiple intelligences as outlined in his 1983 book Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences.
This theory has emerged from recent cognitive research and “documents the extent to which students possess different kinds of minds and therefore learn, remember, perform, and understand in different ways,”
First a word about “MI theory.” On the basis of research in several disciplines, including the study of how human capacities are represented in the brain, I developed the idea that each of us has a number of relatively independent mental faculties, which can be termed our “multiple intelligences.” The basic idea is simplicity itself. A belief in a single intelligence assumes that we have one central, all-purpose computer—and it determines how well we perform in every sector of life—well (hi IQ), average (normal IQ) or poorly (low IQ). In contrast, a belief in multiple intelligences assumes that we have a number of relatively autonomous computers—one that computes linguistic information, another spatial information, another musical information, another information about other people, and so on. I estimate that human beings have 7 to 10 distinct intelligences. Strength in one computer does not predict strength (or weakness) with other computers. Put concretely, one might have high (or low) spatial intelligence and yet that does not predict whether one will have high (or low) musical or interpersonal intelligence.
Intelligence: We all have the multiple intelligences. But we single out, as a strong intelligence, an area where the person has considerable computational power. Your ability to win regularly at a game involving spatial thinking signals strong spatial intelligence. Your ability to speak a foreign language well after just a few months of ‘going native’ signals strong linguistic intelligence.
According to Gardner’s MI theory “we are all able to know the world through language, logical-mathematical analysis, spatial representation, musical thinking, the use of the body to solve problems or to make things, an understanding of other individuals, and an understanding of ourselves. Where individuals differ is in the strength of these intelligences – the so-called profile of intelligences -and in the ways in which such intelligences are invoked and combined to carry out different tasks, solve diverse problems, and progress in various domains.”
D&C 136:32-33 Let him that is ignorant learn wisdom by humbling himself and calling upon the Lord his God, that his eyes may be opened that he may see, and his ears opened that he may hear; For my Spirit is sent forth into the world to enlighten the humble and contrite, and to the condemnation of the ungodly.
Logical-mathematical intelligence consists of the ability to think conceptually and abstractly; the capacity to discern logical and numerical patterns; the capacity to analyze problems logically, carry out mathematical operations, and investigate issues scientifically. An ability to develop equations and proofs, make calculations, and solve abstract problems.
In Howard Gardner’s words, it entails the ability to detect patterns, reason deductively and think logically. This intelligence is most often associated with scientific and mathematical thinking. Logical reasoning is closely linked general intelligence, or g factor
Linguistic intelligence involves sensitivity to spoken and written language; well-developed verbal skills and sensitivity to the sounds, meanings and rhythms of words; the ability to learn languages, and the capacity to use language to accomplish certain goals. This intelligence includes the ability to effectively use language to express oneself rhetorically or poetically; and language as a means to remember information. An ability to analyze information and create products involving oral and written language such as speeches, books, and memos.
Writers, poets, lawyers and speakers are among those that Howard Gardner sees as having high linguistic intelligence. Verbal ability is one of the most g-loaded abilities.
Spatial intelligence involves the potential to recognize and use the patterns of wide space and more confined areas. An ability to recognize and manipulate large-scale and fine-grained spatial images. The capacity to think in images and pictures, to visualize accurately and abstractly. Spatial ability is one of the three factors beneath g in the hierarchical model of intelligence.
Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence entails the potential of using one’s whole body or parts of the body to solve problems. It is the ability to use mental abilities to coordinate bodily movements. An ability to use one’s own body to create products or solve problems. The core elements of the bodily-kinesthetic intelligence are control of one’s bodily motions and the capacity to handle objects skillfully. Gardner elaborates to say that this also includes a sense of timing, a clear sense of the goal of a physical action, along with the ability to train responses.
People who have high bodily-kinesthetic intelligence should be generally good at physical activities such as sports, dance, acting, and making things.
Gardner believes that careers that suit those with high bodily-kinesthetic intelligence include: athletes, dancers, musicians, actors, builders, jewelers, police officers and soldiers.
Intrapersonal intelligence This area has to do with introspective and self-reflective capacities. This refers to having a deep understanding of the self; what one’s strengths or weaknesses are, what makes one unique, being able to predict one’s own reactions or emotions. It entails the capacity to appreciate one’s feelings, fears, desires, intentions and motivations. It is the capacity to be self-aware and in tune with inner feelings, values, beliefs and thinking processes. In Howard Gardner’s view it involves having an effective working model of ourselves, and to be able to use such information to regulate our lives. The philosopher Plato asked, “…why should we not calmly and patiently review our own thoughts, and thoroughly examine and see what these appearances in us really are?”
Interpersonal intelligence is concerned with the capacity to understand the intentions, moods, desires, motivations and desires of other people. It allows people to work effectively with others—in other words, they are able to cooperate in order to work as part of a group. Those with high interpersonal intelligence communicate effectively and empathize easily with others, and may be either leaders or followers. They often enjoy discussion and debate.” This does not equate with being extroverted and Intrapersonal does not equate with being introverted. Educators, salespeople, lecturers, counselors,social workers, religious and political leaders all need a well-developed interpersonal intelligence.
Naturalist intelligence—The ability to recognize flora and fauna, to make other consequential distinctions in the natural world, and to use this ability productively in hunting, in farming, in biological science This area has to do with nurturing and relating information to one’s natural surroundings. Examples include classifying natural forms such as animal and plant species and rocks and mountain types. This ability was clearly of value in our evolutionary past as hunters and gathers; and farmers; it continues to be central in such roles as botanist or chef This sort of ecological receptiveness is deeply rooted in a “sensitive, ethical, and holistic understanding” of the world and its complexities – including the role of humanity within the greater ecosphere.
Musical intelligence involves skill in the performance, composition, and appreciation of musical patterns. It encompasses the capacity to recognize and compose musical pitches, tones, and rhythms. An ability to produce, remember, and make meaning of different patterns of sound. According to Howard Gardner musical intelligence runs in an almost structural parallel to linguistic intelligence.
Existential intelligence —sensitivity and capacity to tackle deep questions about human existence such as, What is the meaning of life? Why do we die? How did we get here?
Take my yoke upon you, and learn of me; for I am meek and lowly in heart: and ye shall find rest unto your souls.
D&C 19: 23 Learn of me, and listen to my words; walk in the meekness of my Spirit, and you shall have peace in me.
Elder Russell M. Nelson
“Today I would like to speak about how we can draw into our lives the power of our Lord and Master, Jesus Christ.
We begin by learning about Him.“It is impossible for [us] to be saved in ignorance.” The more we know about the Savior’s ministry and mission—the more we understand His doctrine and what He did for us—the more we know that He can provide the power that we need for our lives.
Earlier this year, I asked the young adults of the Church to consecrate a portion of their time each week to study everything Jesus said and did as recorded in the standard works. I invited them to let the scriptural citations about Jesus Christ in the Topical Guide become their personal core curriculum.
I gave that challenge because I had already accepted it myself. I read and underlined every verse cited about Jesus Christ, as listed under the main heading and the 57 subtitles in the Topical Guide. When I finished that exciting exercise, my wife asked me what impact it had on me. I told her, ‘I am a different man!’”